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By Rufus Isaacs

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In each correlation-class, there exist p individuals, and the sum total of the aberrations of both the selected provisional averages is thus ~ (pX ax Xay). Again, bx and by represent the differences between the provisional averages and the true calculated average of both the frequency distributions x and y, likewise crx and cry the standard deviations. For the calculation refer to the work of JoHANNSEN (1909, I926, p. 352 and on). 80 a strong positive,+ 0·20 a very weak positive, 0 means no correlation, -- 0·80 is a strong negative and- I an absolutely negative.

In the calculation of the standard deviation all individuals exert an influence, especially those individuals with great deviations from the average. It is characteristic of the average that the sum of the squares of all deviations from the mean is the smallest one, whereas the sum of the squares of all deviations with regard to any other number has a greater value. In other words the ,standard deviation" (a-) can be defined as the "root of the mean square of the deviation", that means that firstly, the deviation must be fixed for every class, then the product of the number of individuals belonging to that class together with the square of the deviation must be calculated, and after this, the average of all these products must be fixed, and finally, the root of this number must be extracted.

It is possible to trace the influence of gymnastics on one twin, from a pair in which one practices athletics and the other does not; or the influence of a profession in a case of two IT brothers who are butcher and carpenter respectively. But it is also possible to fix in this way, the influence of the environment on characters which are difficult to analyze, but which are still extremely important, such as intellect and nature. Pioneer work was carried out in relation to this by NEWMAN, FREEMAN and HoLZINGER ( 1937), who examined nineteen pairs of identical twins who had been raised separately.

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A game of aiming and evasion: General discussion and the marksman's strategies by Rufus Isaacs


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