By Günther Ludwig
Written within the culture of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this e-book goals to elucidate and formulate extra exactly the primary principles of actual theories. by means of introducing a simple descriptive language of easy shape, during which it's attainable to formulate recorded proof, ambiguities of actual theories are refrained from up to attainable. during this strategy the sector of physics that are supposed to be defined by way of a concept will depend on easy ideas merely, i.e. strategies that may be defined with no conception. during this context the authors introduce a brand new notion of idealization and evaluation the method of gaining knowledge of new suggestions. they suspect that, whilst the theories are formulated inside of an axiomatic foundation, recommendations are available to many tricky difficulties equivalent to the translation of actual theories, the relatives among theories in addition to the creation of actual ideas. The publication addresses either physicists and philosophers of technological know-how and may motivate the reader to give a contribution to the certainty of the lasting middle of actual wisdom in regards to the actual constructions of the realm.
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Extra resources for A New Foundation of Physical Theories
Reference - a, b, α - ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............. representation - between a1 , a2 , α, there is the distance relation δ(a1 , a2 , α) - Reality level Fig. 2. Semantic relations of reference and representation An adequate representation of a whole domain of facts requires a system of concepts and propositions. Relation of Denotation The relation of denotation holds between some members at the linguistic level and their correlates at the reality level.
2). 36 3 From Reality to Mathematics A necessary presumption for the possibility of formulating sentences of the forms (p) and (r) is the possibility to mark an - object - by a letter ‘ai ’ (also by any sign). , two glass balls, we can mark one glass ball by ‘a’ and the other by ‘b’. This is not trivial. , introduced by quantum mechanics as a pre-theory the concept of electrons, we see that we cannot mark a particular electron by a letter. , an He-atom with two electrons, we cannot mark one electron by ‘a’ and the other by ‘b’, since the hypothesis that we can distinguish the a-electron from the b-electron is in contradiction to quantum mechanics.
Relation of Reference The relation of reference holds between members at the conceptual level and their correlates at the reality level. This relation of reference occurs in meta-propositions such as the proposition “p” refers to - the object o - . Example A the proposition “a has the property marked spot” refers to - the object a- , – the proposition “between the objects a1 , a2 and the real number α, there is the distance relation δ(a1 , a2 , α)” refers to - the objects a1 , a2 , α - . – If there appear real numbers αi in a relation r(a1 , .
A New Foundation of Physical Theories by Günther Ludwig