By John Butt, Carmen Benjamin (auth.)
(abridged and revised) This reference grammar bargains intermediate and complicated scholars a cause ably accomplished advisor to the morphology and syntax of trained speech and simple prose in Spain and Latin the United States on the finish of the 20th century. Spanish is the most, frequently the only legit language of twenty-one countries,} and it truly is set reasonable to overhaul English by means of the 12 months 2000 in numbers 2 of local audio system. This significant geographical and political variety guarantees that Spanish is an effective deal much less unified than French, German or maybe English, the latter kind of the world over standardized in keeping with both American or British norms. till the Nineteen Sixties, the standards of across the world right Spanish have been dictated through the genuine Academia Espanola, however the status of this establishment has now sunk so low that its such a lot solemn decrees are hardly ever taken heavily - witness the destiny of the spelling reforms indexed within the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortograjia, that have been imagined to come into strength in all Spanish-speaking international locations in 1959 and, approximately 40 years later, are nonetheless selectively neglected by way of publishers and literate people in all places. in point of fact that during Spanish 'correctness' is these days made up our minds, because it is in all residing languages, via the consensus of local audio system; yet consensus approximately linguistic utilization is clearly tough to accomplish among greater than twenty self reliant, commonly scattered and occasionally collectively opposed nations. Peninsular Spanish is itself in flux.
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Additional info for A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish
It is not used in this way before the names of men, except occasionally in law courts to refer to the accused. The article is usually written with a capital letter only in the case of cities (Seco 1992, 162). This is the practice of El Pais. g. la Marfa, la Josefa, el Mario, is considered substandard or regional or typical of court-room language or police reports, unless the name is qualified, as in la simpdtica Ines 'the kindly Ines'. The definite article usually appears before nicknames: EI Che nunca fue derrotado IIIChe" (Guevara) was never defeated' (Cuba Internacional, Cuba)3, Detuvieron a Ramon ·Perez "el Duque" 'They arrested Ram6n Perez, (alias) "the Duke'" (in Spain virtually all notorious criminals are identified by nicknames).
Iv) In doubtful cases retention of the articles is safer: Traeme los tenedores y las eueharas 'Bring me the forks and spoons'. e. nouns that refer to something in general. These are typically: (a) Abstract nouns: la inJormalidad la democracia el catolicismo espanol informality/unreliability democracy Spanish catholicism (b) Substances in general: El salvado es bueno para la digesti6n El acero inoxidable es carisimo La sangre no tiene precio Bran is good for the digestion Stainless steel is extremely expensive Blood has no price Colour nouns are members of this class of noun and require the article: el azul 'blue', el negro 'black', El amarillo es un color que no me gusta 'Yellow is a colour I don't like' .
Students of Portuguese should remember to omit the article in Spanish: 0 Antonio quer um cafe = Antonio quiere un cafe. 22 Definite article with sports teams The mas~e article is used before sports teams: el Granada 'Granada FC', el Manchester United, el Argentina. 23 Definite article before nouns of family relationship Abuelo/abuela takes the article: Entre a dar un beso a la abuela 'I went in to give grandmother a kiss', EI abuelo comia en silencio 'Grandfather was eating in silence'. Tio/tia 'uncle/aunt' also take the article: Di un beso a la tia 'I gave auntie a kiss'.
A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish by John Butt, Carmen Benjamin (auth.)