By W. K. Lelbach (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. med. Helmut Karl Seitz, Professor Dr. med. Burkhard Kommerell (eds.)
Alcohol abuse ranks one of the commonest and likewise the main serious environmental dangers to human health and wellbeing. Its value is heightened through the potential of prevention through removing of the behavior, although, infrequently exerted. The prevalence of deleterious results on human well-being has relentlessly risen long ago years for a number of components. They comprise migration of populations and, really, elevated urbanization. hence, in a few components of the realm, inhabitants teams formerly spared became concerned, that is additionally re flected within the expanding variety of breweries and distilleries within the constructing international locations. Social, spiritual, and gender-related limitations to alcohol intake are loosening, and the monetary development of a few segments of populations now allow them to shop for alcoholic drinks. hence the best percent upward thrust within the usa has lately been in black girls. teenagers and youth drink extra alcoholic drinks than ever, and becoming alcohol abuse by way of pregnant girls has allow to a rise of the occurrence of the fetal alcohol syndrome. whereas the social and behavioral, together with psychiatric, effects of alcoholism are stunning, the gastrointestinal and, relatively, hepatic manifestations are the main frequent somatic results, and protracted hepatic disorder in alcoholics seems to reason the best price to society. certainly, mortality from liver cirrhosis is taken into account a competent index of alcohol intake in a country.
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Extra info for Alcohol Related Diseases in Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology 79: 104-111 Baraona E, Finkelman F, Lieber CS (1984) Reevaluation of the effects of alcohol consumption on rat liver microtubules. Res Commun Chern Pathol Pharmacol 44: 265-278 Berman WJ, Gil J, Jennett RB, Tuma D, Sorrell MF, Rubin E (1983) Ethanol, hepatocellular organelles, and microtubules. Lab Invest 48: 760-767 Bernstein J, Videla L, Israel Y (1973) Metabolic alterations produced in the liver by chronic ethanol administration. Changes related to energetic parameters of the cell.
The mechanisms of collagen degradation in the liver are complex. Preliminary results suggest a paradoxical increase in the activity of neutral collagenase in animals fed ethanol, at least during the early stage of alcoholic liver injury (Okazaki et al. 1977). Subsequently, collagenase activity may decrease and contribute to the collagen accumulation (Maruyama et al. 1982). On the other hand, the role of increased collagen synthesis is suggested by increased activity of hepatic peptidylproline hydroxylase in rats and primates and increased incorporation of proline C14 into hepatic collagen in rat liver slices (Feinman and Lieber 1972).
Normally, fatty acids are oxidized via tJ-oxidation and the citric acid cycle of the mitochondria, which serves as "hydrogen donor" for the mitochondrial electron transport chain. When ethanol is oxidized, however, the generated hydrogen equivalents, which are shuttled into the mitochondria, supplant the citric acid cycle as a source of hydrogen. Depressed fatty acid oxidation by ethanol has been demonstrated in liver slices (Lieber and Schmid 1961), perfused livers (Lieber et al. 1967), isolated hepatocytes (Ontko 1973), and human liver biopsy tissue (Fischel and Oette 1974) and in vivo (Blomstrand et al.
Alcohol Related Diseases in Gastroenterology by W. K. Lelbach (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. med. Helmut Karl Seitz, Professor Dr. med. Burkhard Kommerell (eds.)