By David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)
For a while now, i've got felt that the time is true to put in writing a booklet approximately machine Chess. Ever because the first makes an attempt at chess seasoned gramming have been made, a few twenty 5 years in the past, curiosity within the topic ha"s grown from yr to yr. in the course of the past due Nineteen Fifties the topic used to be first dropped at the eye of the general public through a piece of writing in Scient(fic American, and not more than a decade later a chess application was once competing in a event with people. extra lately, there were tournaments within which the single members have been laptop courses. and while the 1st international desktop Championship used to be held in Stockholm in 1974 the development was once an exceptional luck. Laymen frequently doubt the price of making an investment in a topic so esoteric as laptop chess, yet there's certainly substantial gain to be won from a research of the automisation of chess and different highbrow video games. If it proves attainable to play such video games good by way of machine, then the strategies hired to examine and verify destiny positions in those video games can be precious in different difficulties in long-range making plans. i've got attempted to make this publication either attention-grabbing and instructive. those that comprehend whatever in any respect approximately chess yet who've no wisdom of desktops, might be in a position to stick to my description of the way desktops play chess. people with a data of either components will nonetheless locate a lot to curiosity them.
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Extra resources for All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More Chess and Computers
Most programmers seem to arrive at their coefficients by making a guess and then modifying it in the light of the play of their program. If their program sacrifices its pawns (and sometimes pieces) in the opening in order to achieve maximum mobility, then unless its middle game play is also Morphv-like. its mobilitv coefficient will be reduced relative to material. One practical way to arrive at a working value for a coefficient is to arrange for the program to playa slightly different version of itself.
Which Shannon referred to as a type-A strategy, is to grow the tree to a fixed depth along every branch and then to search for the best move by using the minimax method. This strategy would require the use of only a limited amount of storage in the computer's 'memory' provided that the tree was grown and searched in the most efficient manner. Fig. 21 A tree of depth two half-moves. 42 The Early History of Computer Chess The above tree has a root Po and then branches from the root. From each of the nodes PI' P 2 , P 3 , ...
The numbers) fed to it. A simple program written in an elementary computer language might look like this: READ X; Y= X+ 10; PRINTY; END OF PROGRAM; This program would read in the first number that it was given (probably on a punched card or paper tape) and assign this number to a storage location named X. It would then add 10 to the number stored in location X and put the result in another location named Y. The third instruction would 'tell' the computer to print out the number stored in location Y and the final instruction terminates the program.
All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More Chess and Computers by David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)