By John Krige
In 1945, the us used to be not just the most powerful fiscal and army energy on the earth; it was once additionally the world's chief in technological know-how and expertise. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technology in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar medical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the USA. They mobilized political and monetary help to advertise not only America's clinical and technological agendas in Western Europe yet its chilly warfare political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing at the paintings of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this try at clinical dominance by way of the usa may be noticeable as a sort of "consensual hegemony," regarding the collaboration of influential neighborhood elites who shared American values. He makes use of this thought to research a sequence of case stories that describe how the united states management, senior officials within the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO technological know-how Committee, and influential contributors of the clinical establishment--notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia collage and Vannevar Bush of MIT--tried to Americanize medical practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations examine. He info U.S. help for associations together with CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif close to Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's research exhibits how consensual hegemony in technology not just served the pursuits of postwar eu reconstruction yet turned in a different way of conserving American management and "making the realm secure for democracy."
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Extra resources for American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology)
This condition was waived in the case of the British. ” By contrast it was deemed “doubtful whether any form of military research and development should be carried out by continental research institutions . . ”89 In short, the scientific and technical relationships between the United States and Britain in the Science and the Marshall Plan 39 framework of the Marshall Plan were to be shaped by the far greater strength of British science compared to that on the Continent, by the government’s commitment to an expanding scientific and technical base, by the absence of a Communist threat, as in France, or of fears of a resurgence of militarism, as in Germany, and by the “special relationship” that existed between the two Anglo-Saxon nations, notably that embodied in the exchange of nuclear information.
56 The ONR turned to its Office of the Assistant Naval Attaché for Research in London for help. 58 This supplementary material was heavily biased in favor of physics, as we might expect from a military establishment: chemistry and the life sciences, for example, were seldom, if ever mentioned. ” The introductory and concluding sections to the ONR report made some general recommendations regarding the needs of science in Europe as a whole. ” Scientific training had been disrupted, scientific equipment and materials were sadly lacking, and money was in short supply.
In the months that followed, anti-Semitic laws were promulgated by Mussolini’s fascist government, leading to the expulsion of Jews from all public offices, including the universities and the academies. Fermi and his wife, who was Jewish, had had enough. Starved of resources to do frontline physics and disgusted and threatened by the racist regime, Fermi picked up his Nobel Prize in Stockholm in December 1938 and continued on directly to the United States, never to return. He was not the only leading physicist to emigrate: so too did Rasetti, Segrè, and Bruno Rossi (to the United States) while the war drove Giuseppe Occhialini to South America.
American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology) by John Krige